Christian Nikolaus Braun

Dr. Christian Nikolaus Braun is a senior lecturer in the Defence and International Affairs Department at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. His primary area of research is the ethics of war and peace. In particular, he seeks to assess the morality of emerging military technologies and associated practices. At the moment, he is working on a research monograph on jus ad vim. He can be followed on Twitter at @ChristianBraun.

The arguments in this article are those of the author alone and they are not necessarily those of the UK Ministry of Defence.

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Force Short of War and Jus ad Vim
Force Short of War and Jus ad Vim

Force-short-of-war raises many moral questions, and jus ad vim has been an attempt to provide answers.

The Virtuous Ruler: Hildegard of Bingen and the Question of Political Authority in Just War
The Virtuous Ruler: Hildegard of Bingen and the Question of Authority in Just War

For Hildegard, rulers who blatantly violate the virtuous example set by Christ lose their authority to rule. Following from that, an unvirtuous ruler would necessarily fail to be a right authority that can legitimately wage war.