Providence is published by the Institute on Religion & Democracy and The Philos Project. We are a community of mostly Protestants and Evangelicals addressing national security and global statecraft through the lens of historic Christian thinking. We welcome article submissions for our daily website and hard copy quarterly journal. Check out our writer’s guidelines.


Publishers: The Institute of Religion and Democracy, The Philos Project

Editors: Mark Tooley, Robert Nicholson

Executive Editor: Marc LiVecche

Managing Editor: Drew Griffin

Deputy Editor: Mark Melton

Assistant Editors: Kirkland An, Grayson Logue

Senior Editors: Luke Moon, Keith Pavlischek, Joseph Loconte

Contributing Editors: Sohrab Ahmari, Mark Amstutz, Fred Barnes, Nigel Biggar, J. Daryl Charles, Paul Coyer, Dean Curry, Alan Dowd, Thomas Farr, Matt N. Gobush, Mary Habeck, Rebeccah Heinrichs, Will Inboden, James Turner Johnson, Timothy Mallard, Jennifer Marshall, Paul Marshall, Faith McDonnell, Walter Russell Mead, Paul Miller, Joshua Mitchell, Luke Moon, Mackubin Thomas Owens, Eric Patterson, Daniel Strand, Joshua Walker, Travis Wussow.

Contributing Editor Emeritus: Michael Cromartie (1950–2017)

Mark Tooley is president of the Institute on Religion and Democracy and editor of the Institute’s foreign policy and national security journal Providence. He is also the author of Taking Back The United Methodist Church (2008) and The Peace That Almost Was (2015).

Robert Nicholson is the executive director of The Philos Project, a nonprofit organization that seeks to promote positive Christian engagement in the Middle East. He holds a BA in Hebrew Studies from Binghamton University and a JD and MA (Middle Eastern History) from Syracuse University. He has served as a U.S. Marine and as a 2012-2013 Tikvah Fellow, and Robert now lives in New York City with his wife and two children.

Marc LiVecche is the just war and global statecraft scholar with the Institute on Religion and Democracy, and the executive editor of Providence. Prior to these roles, he completed doctoral studies at the University of Chicago, where he worked under the supervision of the political theorist and public intellectual Jean Bethke Elshtain, until her death in August 2013. Marc’s dissertation, With Malice Toward None: The Moral Ground for Killing in War, takes a classic just war view of the question of killing in its theological and ethical dimensions in part as a response to the crisis of moral injury. Before all that, Marc spent twelve years doing a variety of things in Central Europe—ranging from helping build sport and recreational leagues in post-communist communities, to working at a Christian study and research center, to leading seminars on the history and ethics onsite at the former Auschwitz-Birkenau Nazi concentration camp in Poland. This latter experience allowed him to continue his undergraduate study of the Shoah; a process which helped permanently inoculate him against pacifism.

Drew Griffin is the managing editor for Providence. Drew holds a BA in Political Science from the University of Arkansas and an MDiv in Biblical and Theological Studies from the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. He is a veteran of over a dozen political campaigns and is a featured writer and speaker on the intersection of faith and culture. For three years he served as director of the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary extension center in NYC and was a professor of Theology at the New York School of the Bible. Drew served for four years as founder and pastor of Cross Church NYC, a Protestant church plant in Manhattan’s Upper East Side. Drew lives in Manhattan, with his wife Emily and daughter Charlotte.

Mark Melton is the deputy editor for Providence. He earned his Master’s degree in international relations from the University of St. Andrews and has a specialization in civil conflict and European politics. He earned his Bachelor’s degree in foreign language and international trade from Mississippi College. Prior to moving to DC, he worked as a political science adjunct professor at community colleges in Mississippi.

Kirkland An is an assistant editor for Providence who handles design and production.

Grayson Logue is an assistant editor for Providence who handles social media and operations. He holds a BA in politics, philosophy, and economics from The King’s College. While at King’s, Grayson was an Intercollegiate Studies Institute Honors Scholar and represented the school internationally in British Parliamentary debate. Prior to joining Providence, he worked in public policy and issue advocacy in New York state. He lives in Brooklyn, New York.

Keith Pavlischek is a military affairs expert with a focus on just war theory and the ethics of war. He retired as a colonel in the U.S. Marine Corps in 2007 after thirty years of active and reserve service.  His served in Desert Storm, Bosnia, Iraq, with the U.S. Central Command and the Office of the Director of National Intelligence. He holds a Ph.D. in Religion, Ethics, and Society from the University of Pittsburgh and taught in Truman State University’s Department of Philosophy & Religion. He also served as the Program Director for the Crossroads Program and the Civitas Program on Faith and Public Life. Following his retirement from the Marine Corps became a senior fellow at the Ethics and Public Policy Center and then spent three separate tours in Afghanistan supporting the U.S. military as a civilian advisor.  He is the author of John Courtney Murray and the Dilemma of Religious Toleration (1994) and numerous articles, including a chapter on the ethics of asymmetric warfare in the Ashgate Research Companion to Military Ethics (2015).

Joseph Loconte is an associate professor of history at the King’s College in New York City and the author of A Hobbit, a Wardrobe, and a Great War: How J.R.R. Tolkien and C.S. Lewis Rediscovered Faith, Friendship, and Heroism in the Cataclysm of 1914-1918.

Mark Amstutz is a professor of political science and international relations at Wheaton College and has served on the faculty since 1972. His research has focused on the role of ethics in the conduct of foreign relations. His books include International Ethics and Evangelicals & American Foreign Policy. For more than a decade he served as a reserve naval attaché, retiring as a Commander from the U.S. Naval Reserve in 1993.

Fred Barnes is executive editor of The Weekly Standard, which he co-founded in 1995. From 1985 to 1995, he was senior editor and White House correspondent for the New Republic. He covered the Supreme Court and the White House for the Washington Star before moving to the Baltimore Sun in 1979. He served as the national political correspondent for the Sun and wrote the “Presswatch” media column for the American Spectator. Barnes appears regularly on the Fox News Channel. From 1988 to 1998 he was a regular panelist on the McLaughlin Group. He has also appeared on Nightline, Meet the Press, Face the Nation, and the NewsHour with Jim Lehrer. Barnes graduated from the University of Virginia and was a Neiman Fellow at Harvard University.

Nigel Biggar is Regius Professor of Moral and Pastoral Theology, and Director of the McDonald Centre for Theology, Ethics, and Public Life, at the University of Oxford. He is the author of In Defence of War (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013) and, most recently, Between Kin and Cosmopolis: An Ethic of the Nation (Eugene, OR: Cascade, 2014).

J. Daryl Charles teaches in the Chattanooga Fellows Program and is an Affiliated Scholar of the John Jay Institute. He is author, co-author or editor of 14 books, including (with Mark David Hall) America’s Wars: A Just War Perspective (University of Notre Dame Press, forthcoming), (with David D. Corey) The Just War Tradition: An Introduction (ISI Books, 2012), (with Timothy J. Demy) War, Peace, and Christianity (Crossway, 2010), and Between Pacifism and Jihad (IVP, 2005).

Paul Coyer writes on foreign policy, with a focus on Eurasia, for Forbes, and is a Research Professor at the Institute of World Politics in Washington, D.C. He has graduate degrees in theological ethics (from Yale University), as well as in international history (from The London School of Economics and Political Science). Dr. Coyer was a Visiting Scholar at the Institute for European, Russian and Eurasian Studies at the Elliott School of International Affairs at George Washington University in Washington, D.C., from 2007-2013, and served as a guest lecturer at the University of Florence, Italy, in 2011 and 2012 in the area of Chinese foreign policy and Sino-American relations. He is a member of the International Institute of Strategic Studies.

Alan Dowd is a senior fellow with the Sagamore Institute, where he leads the Center for America’s Purpose ( In addition to Providence, Dowd’s award-winning writing has appeared in The Claremont Review of BooksPolicy ReviewParametersThe Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations, Military Officer, The Wall Street Journal EuropeThe Jerusalem PostThe Financial Times DeutschlandThe American, The American Legion Magazine, American Outlook, World Politics ReviewCurrentThe Washington TimesThe Baltimore SunThe Washington ExaminerThe Detroit NewsThe Indianapolis StarThe National Post, The Stream, byFaith and the online editions of The American InterestThe Weekly Standard and The National Review. Dowd has been a guest on Fox News Channel’s “Fox and Friends” and the Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s “Counterpoint.” In addition, he has been interviewed by Cox News Service, CBN, The Washington TimesThe National Post (Canada) and numerous radio programs.

Thomas F. Farr is Associate Professor of the Practice of Religion and World Affairs at the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University. He directs the Religious Freedom Project and the Program on Religion and US Foreign Policy at Georgetown’s Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs, where he is a senior fellow. He is also a senior fellow at the Witherspoon Institute in Princeton, NJ. Dr. Farr has served in both the U.S. Army and the American Foreign Service. Early in his Foreign Service career, Dr. Farr specialized in strategic military policy and political affairs. During the Cold War, he helped develop U.S. strategic nuclear policy and was part of the U.S. negotiating team in the U.S.-Soviet arms control talks in Geneva. In 1999 Farr became the first director of the State Department’s Office of International Religious Freedom, in which capacity he led American diplomatic efforts to promote religious liberty. Farr is a contributing editor for the Review of Faith and International Affairs and has published widely on religious freedom and its implications. His work has appeared in many edited volumes, and in the Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy, the Houston Journal of International Law, the Drake Law Review, Foreign Affairs, Foreign Policy, First Things, the Weekly Standard, the National Review, America Magazine, Columbia Magazine, the New York Times, the Washington Post, the Review of Faith and International Affairs, and other outlets. Farr has appeared on PBS, America Abroad, Book TV, Al Jazeera, Alhurra, EWTN, CBN, and many other media outlets. His first book, World of Faith and Freedom: Why International Religious Liberty is Vital to American National Security, was published by Oxford University Press.

Matt Gobush is a contributing editor for Providence and served on the staff of the National Security Council in the Clinton White House, the US Department of Defense, the US Senate, and the US House of Representatives International Relations Committee. He also served as chairman of the Episcopal Church’s Standing Commission on Anglican and International Peace with Justice Concerns. He currently works in the private sector and lives in Dallas, Texas with his wife and six internationally adopted children.

Mary Habeck is a Visiting Scholar at the American Enterprise Institute (AEI), where she writes on al-Qa’ida, ISIS, and jihadi-Salafism.  From 2005-2013 she was an Associate Professor in Strategic Studies at Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), teaching courses on military history and strategic thought.  Before coming to SAIS, Dr. Habeck taught American and European military history in Yale’s history department, 1994-2005.  She received her Ph.D. in history from Yale in 1996, an MA in international relations from Yale in 1989, and a BA in international studies, Russian, and Spanish from Ohio State in 1987.  Dr. Habeck was appointed by President Bush to the Council on the Humanities at the National Endowment for the Humanities (2006-2013), and in 2008-2009 she was the Special Advisor for Strategic Planning on the National Security Council staff.  In addition to books and articles on doctrine, World War I, the Spanish Civil War, and al-Qa’ida, her publications include Knowing the Enemy:  Jihadist Ideology and the War on Terror (Yale, 2005) and three forthcoming sequels, Attacking America:  Al-Qa’ida’s Grand Strategy (Basic, 2016), Managing Savagery: Al-Qa’ida’s Military and Political Strategies (2018), and Fighting the Enemy:  The U.S. and its War against al-Qa’ida (2019).

Rebeccah L. Heinrichs is a fellow at Hudson Institute where she provides research and commentary on a variety of international security issues and specializes in deterrence and counter-proliferation. She is also the vice-chairman of the John Hay Initiative’s Counter-proliferation Working Group and the original manager of the House of Representatives Bi-partisan Missile Defense Caucus.

William Inboden is an associate professor at the LBJ School of Public Affairs and executive director of the Clements Center for History, Strategy, and Statecraft at the University of Texas-Austin. He is also a distinguished scholar at the Strauss Center for International Security, a non-resident fellow with the German Marshall Fund of the United States, senior advisor with Avascent International, and an associate scholar with the Berkley Center’s Religious Freedom Project. Previously he served as senior vice president of the Legatum Institute and senior director for the White House’s Strategic Planning on the National Security Council. Inboden also worked at the Department of State as a member of the Policy Planning Staff and special advisor in the Office of International Religious Freedom. He is the author of Religion and American Foreign Policy, 1945-1960: The Soul of Containment (2008) and a contributing editor at Foreign Policy magazine.

James Turner Johnson (Ph.D., Princeton 1968) is Distinguished Professor of Religion and Associate of the Graduate Program in Political Science at Rutgers—The State University of New Jersey, where he has been on the faculty since 1969.  His research and teaching have focused principally on the historical development and application of the Western and Islamic moral traditions related to war, peace, and the practice of statecraft.

Chaplain (Colonel) Timothy Mallard is a career U.S. Army Chaplain.  He holds a Ph.D. in Christian Ethics from the University of Wales Trinity Saint David and is a graduate of the U.S. Army War College and certified Army Strategist. He is a former Division Chaplain for the 1st Infantry Division and veteran of five combat and operational deployments overseas.

Jennifer A. Marshall is vice president for the Institute for Family, Community, and Opportunity and Joseph C. and Elizabeth A. Anderlik Fellow at The Heritage Foundation, and a senior research fellow with the Institute of Theology and Public Life at Reformed Theological Seminary, Washington, DC.

Paul Marshall is a Senior Fellow at the Hudson Institute’s Center for Religious Freedom, a Distinguished Senior Fellow at the Institute for the Study of Religion as well as Jerry and Susie Wilson Professor of Religious Freedom at Baylor University, a Senior Fellow at the Leimena Institute in Jakarta, and a Visiting Professor at the Graduate School of Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University (UIN) in Jakarta. He has written and edited more than twenty books on religion and politics, especially religious freedom. He is in frequent demand for lectures and media appearances, including interviews on ABC Evening News, CNN, PBS, Fox, the British Broadcasting Corporation, and Al Jazeera. His work has been published in, or is the subject of, articles in the New York TimesWall St. JournalWashington Post, Los Angeles Times, Washington TimesBoston Globe, Dallas Morning News, Christian Science Monitor, First Things, New Republic, Weekly Standard, Reader’s Digest, and many other newspapers and magazines.

Faith McDonnell has been with the Institute on Religion & Democracy since 1993. She is the Director of Religious Liberty Programs and of the Church Alliance for a New Sudan. She writes and speaks on the subject of the persecuted church.

Walter Russell Mead is the James Clarke Chace Professor of Foreign Affairs and the Humanities at Bard College, the Distinguished Scholar in American Strategy and Statesmanship for the Hudson Institute, and the Editor-at-Large for The American Interest, where he writes the respected and popular Via Meadia blog. He previously served as the Henry A. Kissinger Senior Fellow for U.S. Foreign Policy for the Council on Foreign Relations. The author of God and Gold: Britain, America, and the Making of the Modern World (2008), Professor Mead is a frequent contributor to the Wall Street Journal and Foreign Affairs.

Paul D. Miller teaches public policy at the University of Texas at Austin. He is a contributing editor of Providence, a member of the advisory board of the Philos Project, and a research fellow with the Ethics and Religious Liberty Commission.

Joshua Mitchell is currently a professor of political theory at Georgetown University, and he has been Chairman of the Government Department and also Associate Dean of Faculty Affairs at Georgetown’s School of Foreign Service in Qatar. During the 2008-10 academic years, Dr. Mitchell took Leave from Georgetown and was the Acting Chancellor of The American University of Iraq – Sulaimani. His research interest lies in the relationship between political thought and theology in the West. He has published articles in The Review of PoliticsThe Journal of PoliticsThe Journal of ReligionAmerican Political Science ReviewPolitical Theory, and The American Interest.  His books include Not by Reason Alone: Religion, History, and Identity in Early Modern Thought; The Fragility of Freedom: Tocqueville on Religion, Democracy, and the American Future; Plato’s Fable: On the Mortal Condition in Shadowy Times; and Tocqueville in Arabia: Dilemmas in a Democratic Age. He is currently working on a book manuscript entitled, Reinhold Niebuhr and the Politics of Hope.

Luke Moon is the Deputy Director of the Philos Project. Prior to that, Luke served as business manager for the Institute on Religion and Democracy, and, before that, as a missionary with Youth with a Mission for 12 years. Luke has lived, worked, and taught in over 45 countries, and has advocated on a number of human rights issues along the way. He holds a BA in Biblical Studies from the University of the Nations and an MA in Global Politics from Regent University. Luke is also an ordained Southern Baptist minister.

Mackubin Thomas Owens is a professor and the Dean of Academic Affairs at The Institute of World Politics. Dr. Owens is a Senior Fellow of the Foreign Policy Research Institute (FPRI) in Philadelphia, and editor of Orbis, FPRI’s quarterly journal.  He retired in 2014 as Professor of National Security Affairs at the US Naval War College in Newport, Rhode Island. At the War College, he specialized in the planning of US strategy and forces, especially naval and power projection forces; the political economy of national security; national security organization; strategic geography; and American civil-military relations. From 1990 to 1997, Dr. Owens was Editor-in-Chief of the quarterly defense journal Strategic Review. Dr. Owens books include Abraham Lincoln: Leadership and Democratic Statesmanship in Wartime (2009) and US Civil-Military Relations After 9/11: Renegotiating the Civil-Military Bargain (Continuum Press, January 2011), and he is a coauthor of US Foreign and Defense Policy: The Rise of an Incidental Superpower (Georgetown University Press, spring 2015). He is co-editor of the textbook, Strategy and Force Planning, now in its fourth edition, for which he also wrote several chapters, including “The Political Economy of National Security,” “Thinking About Strategy,” and “The Logic of Strategy and Force Planning.” Dr. Owens is a regular contributor to the Wall Street Journal, and his articles on national security issues have appeared in International Security, Orbis, Joint Force Quarterly, The Public Interest, The Weekly Standard, The St. Louis Lawyer. Defence Analysis, US Naval Institute Proceedings, Marine Corps Gazette, Comparative Strategy, National Review, The New York Times, The Christian Science Monitor; The Los Angeles Timesthe Jerusalem Post, The Washington Times, and The New York Post. Dr. Owens is also a Marine Corps veteran of Vietnam, where, as an infantry platoon and company commander in 1968-1969, he was wounded twice and awarded the Silver Star medal. 

Eric Patterson, PhD, is a Providence contributing editor and Dean and Professor in the Robertson School of Government at Regent University in Virginia Beach, VA. He is the author or editor of 11 books, including Ending Wars Well, Ethics Beyond War’s EndDebating the War of Ideas, and, with Timothy Demy, the just-released Philosophers on War.

Daniel Strand, a Providence contributing editor, is a postdoctoral fellow in the Center for Political Thought and Leadership at Arizona State University. His scholarly interests are in the history of political thought, religion and politics, and the thought of St. Augustine of Hippo.

Michael Cromartie (d. 2017) was Vice President of the Ethics and Public Policy Center, where he directed both the Evangelicals in Civic Life and Faith Angle Forum programs. His area of expertise included issues at the cross-section of religion and politics. Mr. Cromartie contributed book reviews and articles to many prominent publications, including First Things, the Washington PostChristianity Today, and World magazine. Mr. Cromartie also appeared on numerous radio and television programs, including National Public Radio’s All Things Considered, NBC’s Evening News with Brian Williams, ABC World News Tonight, C-SPAN’s Washington Journal, and the PBS news program The News Hour with Jim Lehrer. Mr. Cromartie is the editor of fifteen books, including Religion and Politics in AmericaReligion, Culture, and International Conflict; and A Public Faith: Evangelicals and Civic Engagement. A senior advisor to the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life and a senior fellow with The Trinity Forum, he was also an advisory editor of Christianity Today magazine. On September 20, 2004, Mr. Cromartie was appointed by President George W. Bush to a six-year term on the U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom, where he was later twice elected chairman. Mr. Cromartie graduated from Covenant College (GA) and held an MA in Justice from The American University in Washington, DC. He passed away in August 2017.