History

Arnold Toynbee on the Meaning of History for the Soul
Arnold Toynbee on the Meaning of History for the Soul

Shortly after he appeared on the cover of Time, English historian Arnold Toynbee wrote an essay about how Christians should view history.

Religious Liberty in Italy after World War II

In the following article from 75 years ago, Howard V. Yergin warned Americans about the emerging Italian constitution that would effectively privilege Catholics and treat religious minorities less favorably.

Stirred never Shaken: Our Sir John Wheeler-Bennett
Stirred never Shaken: Our Sir John Wheeler-Bennett

We were stirred, never shaken, by our real-life James Bond figure. Sir John Wheeler-Bennett was the picture of an English aristocrat, without a hint of stuffiness. So genial, so approachable, we young University of Virginia students were thrilled by each of his lectures on diplomatic history—especially about anything on England and Germany in the interwar period.

Five Impressions on Niebuhr and Co., 1945–47

From 1945 to 1947 as the United States and Soviet Union moved toward the Cold War, Christian realists writing for Reinhold Niebuhr’s journal, Christianity and Crisis, responded to global dilemmas. Here are five impressions of those articles, along with lessons for today.

C. S. Lewis Was Wrong on History

Butterfield did not offer us Christian apologetics, but he did offer a Christian understanding of history far more appealing than Lewis’s dismissal of the project.     

How “Strategic Ambiguity” Led to the Great War
How “Strategic Ambiguity” Led to the Great War

What we can gain from the origins of the Great War is that strategic ambiguity played a role in bringing on that cataclysm.

Is It Time to Preach Optimism? - Hope Pessimism
Is It Time to Preach Optimism?

Recognizing the place for a genuine religious hope born of faith and for an enthusiasm for realization of social and ethical gains in any historical situation, Christianity will nevertheless, when true to itself, set its face against utopianism or popular brands of optimism.

Russia’s Long History of Obstructing Iranian Progress toward Freedom - Iran Russia
Russia’s Long History of Obstructing Iranian Progress toward Freedom

A look at the history of Iran-Russia relations demonstrates the same pattern of Russian regimes exploiting Iranian resources. Most evidently, tsarist Russia obstructed the Iranian Constitutional Revolution of 1906–07, and the Soviet Union attempted to create a satellite state in the Azerbaijan province of Iran.

Niebuhr’s Report from Switzerland, 1947
Niebuhr’s Report from Switzerland, 1947

At the end of Reinhold Niebuhr’s travels across Western Europe in 1947, he spent a week at the Ecumenical Institute, a facility near Geneva. He was hopeful of how this project would bless the church life of the world, and he offered observations about discussions there about communism, church-state relations, Christian political parties, and more.